The Boeing 747-400 – Audio Engineers

747-400 Foundation:

Powerplants were the key to bartering aircraft capability, abstinent by payload, range, and performance, and all were congenital in the 747-200B if the 63,000 thrust-pound Pratt and Whitney JT9D-7Q became available. Aboriginal ordered by Northwest Orient, but bound followed by Braniff, Japan Air Lines, Singapore Airlines, and Avianca, the version, introducing lighter nacelles, offered a two- to three-percent abridgement in ammunition consumption. Powered by the similarly-rated General Electric CF6-50E and Rolls Royce RB.211-524D turbofans, the aircraft was able to avowal a new best ascent weight of 833,000 pounds.

While an added adaptation alternative had been advised during the 747 program’s ancient days, these higher-thrust engines paved the way for austere reconsideration now afterwards the above charge to cede burden endless or ambit for it.

Toward that end, studies completed in 1976 focused on a 23-foot accumulation stretch, accomplished by agency of seven-frame avant-garde and eight-frame aft insertions, forth with a 27-foot top accouter increase, for a new alloyed chic commuter adaptation of 570, as adjoin to the antecedent 440. Yet depressed commuter appeal during the late-1970s precluded the activity of this absolutely aggressive activity and airline chump accord acicular to a added bashful stretch.

This took anatomy as the 747SUD, or “stretched top deck,” in the bounce of 1980. Lengthened by some 23 feet, it congenital 18 added windows and two full-size, upward-opening doors with 45-foot-long aborticide slides. Although it agitated an 8,000-pound, or two-percent, structural weight increase, the contrarily simplified modification added its six-abreast adaptation from 32 to 69, accomplished by a new, straight, centralized admission that replaced the type’s signature circling one.

Designated 747-300, it was offered as both a new-build adaptation or a about-face of absolute 747-200Bs, both of which factored into barrage chump Swissair’s June 1980 adjustment for four of the above and one of the latter. Powered by four 64,750 thrust-pound JT9D-7R4G2 engines, it aboriginal flew two years later, on October 5, and was blazon certified a year afterwards that on March 4 at an 833,000-pound gross weight.

While the basal change adaptation offered a bashful adaptation increase, it alien neither added ambit nor any blazon of architecture enhancement.

747-400 Architecture and Development:

Several factors acquired austere reconsideration of a added aggressive acquired of the 747 in the mid-1980s.

Sales, aboriginal and foremost, had been declining. The account accumulation amount of seven airframes in 1979 had been bargain to a crawl of alone one. Afterwards revitalization, the affairs was acceptable to be terminated.

Currency and advancement, secondly, had not been maintained, a action that had kept the 727 and 737 programs animate with avant-garde versions, and the later, particularly, had spawned the Next Bearing 737-300, -400, and -500 series.

Competition, thirdly, although not consistently on an even-keel basis, had amorphous to arise with step-change technology, as occurred with the DC-10-30 and -40, whose afterwards MD-11 alien quieter, added ammunition able engines and two-person agenda cockpits. Airbus itself was about to bare its own twin- and quad-engine A330 and A340 designs. The 747 appeared decidedly anachronous with its three-man, alternation cockpit, abnormally if abstinent adjoin Boeing’s own new-technology attenuated and widebody 757 and 767 offerings.

Finally, advance had confused from the Atlantic to the Pacific, with aberrant numbers of cartage and amounts of burden getting transported to China, Japan, and Korea.

What was bare was a avant-garde adaptation of the admirable 747 with cogent ambit to annihilate the average stops in Alaska and Hawaii, yet not cede payload. The antidote was initially envisioned as a adaptation of the 747-300 with either Pratt and Whitney PW4000 or General Electric CF6-80C turbofans, an added wingspan, and its appropriately greater addition basal ammunition catchbasin capacity.

Yet, a lot of of the major, aboriginal 747 operators approved far added than these basal ability and dimensional increases packaged in the proposed 747-300A, bidding Boeing to commence aloft an all-encompassing analysis activity so that the new adaptation would be adequate with late-20th aeon technology.

Devising, in fact, a five-point account to accomplish next-generation sales, it approved to absorb avant-garde technology, appreciably enhance the commuter cabin, admission the ambit by 1,000 miles, abate ammunition burning by up to 37-percent over that of the aboriginal 747-100, and abate operating costs by ten percent.

Designated 747-400 and appear in May of 1985, it was a decidedly bigger aircraft.

Although it retained the 231.10-foot all-embracing breadth of all the antecedent accepted versions and featured the continued top accouter of the -300, it alien a appreciably adapted wing. Congenital up of the 2000 chestnut and 7000 zinc alternation of aluminum alloys developed for the 757 and 767, which formed the bewilderment box’s top and lower skins, and accumulation graphite composites, it featured both a six-foot amount admission and six-foot winglets that were evidently canted by 29 degrees and had a 60-degree sweepback. Eliminating the charge for a greater amount increase, these area-rule advised accessories acclimatized the amphitheater created by the top and lower burden cogwheel remix at the tip, accretion breadth and lift, abbreviation drag, and application aboideau affinity ambit a greater amplitude would not accept achieved.

“Winglets,” according to Boeing, “are a new stabilization affection to atone for addition and physique structural changes.” They facilitated the carriage of 40 added cartage 2,500 afar further.

While the ailerons, spoilers, and dual-section, amateur slotted abaft angle flaps remained the aforementioned as those congenital on antecedent 747 versions, an added capricious camber arch angle accessory was installed, consistent in three inboard Krueger accessories from the basis to the inboard engines, 5 mid-wing ones amid the powerplants, and the new absolute of six amid the outboard one and the tip.

The architecture abstracts added the wing’s backbone by amid 5 and 13 percent, yet bargain aircraft weight by up to 5,500 pounds. Compared to the 195.8-foot amount of the antecedent versions, the 747-400 had a 211.5 unfueled one or 213.0 one with abounding tanks, which acquired a bottomward angle of the airfoil. Aspect arrangement was 7.7 and breadth was 5,825 aboveboard feet.

Another 747-400 advance was its powerplant. Because engine manufacturers had fabricated cogent advance in the architecture and development of avant-garde turbofans, decidedly for long-range, widebody twins which were predicated aloft added believability and advance and decreased ammunition burning and noise, the latest 747 adaptation was 40-percent quieter than its -300 alternation predecessor. As had occurred with the 747-200B, it was offered with poweprlants fabricated by all three engine manufacturers.

The 56,750 thrust-pound Pratt and Whitney PW4056, for example, defined by barrage chump Northwest Orient, featured individual clear agent blades, abounding ascendancy agenda engine ascendancy (FADEC), a ten-percent top burden compressor arrangement increase, and a 27-percent greater top burden rotor speed. It captivated seven percent beneath ammunition than the beforehand JT9D aloft which it was based.

The 58,000 thrust-pound General Electric CF6-80C2B1F, aboriginal defined by KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, offered a four-stage low burden compressor akin to the fan, a amount airflow that added from 276 to 340 pounds per second, and an all-embracing burden arrangement of 30.4 to 1 produced by the 14-stage top burden compressor. Like the PW4056, it was FADEC-equipped.

The Rolls Royce RB.211-524, featuring three-shaft, wide-chord blades, was offered in two versions: the 58,000 thrust-pound -524G and the 60,000 thrust-pound 524H. It was aboriginal ordered by Cathay Pacific.

All engines, behindhand of type, were absorbed to redesigned, automated pylons.

The Pratt and Whitney Canada PW901A abetting ability assemblage (APU), replacing the long-standard Allied Signal one for the aboriginal time, captivated 40 percent beneath fuel. It could advance a 75-degree Fahrenheit berth temperature while the aircraft was on the arena with a 100-degree alien one.

Fuel, whose adaptation assorted amid 53,985 and 57,285 US gallons for Pratt and Whitney and Rolls Royce engine-powered aircraft, and amid 53,711 and 57,011 US gallons for General Electric powered ones, was stored in the accumulation centermost breadth and two capital tanks per wing, forth with assets and aperture billow tanks. Although accessory modifications had been fabricated to their accouterments and sensors, the 747-400′s above architecture affection was a 3,300-US gallon abetting catchbasin in the 72-foot, 2.5-inch spanned accumbent tailplane, accouterment a 350 abyssal mile increase. It was not, however, acclimated for in-flight center-of-gravity variation.

Increased adviser authority, alteration best angle from a above 25- to a present 30-degrees, facilitated a ten-knot arena acceleration abridgement in which it could advance the effectiveness.

While the 747-400 retained the aforementioned five-truck, 18-wheel agreement of the beforehand versions, it replaced the above animate brakes with carbon ones, which offered a 1,800-pound weight reduction, were rated for alert the amount of landings, and cooled faster, accretion aircraft turn-around times. Beyond tires apprenticed a caster bore admission from 20 to 22 inches. Ai agenda antiskid arrangement was introduced.

Ice and rain aegis amid absolute air temperature probes; window wipers, washers, and rain repellent; window heat; pitot-static probes on both sides; angle-of-attack sensors, afresh on both sides; addition anti-ice; and engine basin cowl anti-ice.

Aircraft application credibility were many. Those on the accumulation included exhaustion cleaning, oxygen, electrical, cooler water, hydraulic, oil, air start, and air conditioning. Those on the addition amid the ammunition vent, the force ammunition port, the ammunition itself, and the ammunition ascendancy console on the larboard addition underside.

Significant enhancements were fabricated to the interior.

The cockpit, aboriginal and foremost, was adapted from a three- to a two-person one, with the action engineer’s functions accepting been congenital in an aerial console and these were now automatically monitored.

Employing agenda systems advised for the 757 and 767, it featured six eight-by-eight inch cathode ray tube (CRT) displays, consisting of the primary action affectation (PFD) and the aeronautics affectation (ND) placed side-by-side in foreground of the captain and bifold for the aboriginal officer, and two centermost engine adumbration and aggregation alerting arrangement (EICAS) screens.

The basement amid the two pilots independent the ascendancy affectation units (CDU’s), the ammunition ascendancy switches, the parking anchor lever, the radio advice panels, the audio ascendancy panels, the aileron and adviser ascendancy panel, the antithesis trim indicator, the acclimate alarm ascendancy panel, the transponder ascendancy panel, the autobrake selector panel, and the attainable address-interphone handset.

An all-encompassing abstracts base, subdivided into achievement and aeronautics categories, replaced the achievement manuals and aeronautics charts, and facilitated the rapid, acutely authentic calculations of any adapted constant in affiliation with the flight administration computer (FMC).

Information was both absorbent and retrievable by agency of the ascendancy affectation assemblage keypads.

During cockpit setup, the lower of the two engine indicator and aggregation alerting arrangement screens displayed the accessory engine data-that is, the N2 and N3 shaft speeds, vibration, ammunition flow, and oil temperature, pressure, and quantity-while the top continuously displayed the primary engine data, such as engine burden ratio, the N1 fan speed, and the bankrupt gas temperature (EGT). Yet abundant awning amplitude remained for added aircraft cachet indications, including accessory and basal positions.

Compared to the 971 lights, gauges, and switches of the aboriginal bearing 747′s analog cockpit, the accepted -400′s agenda one featured alone a third, or 365. The aircraft was certified for Category IIIB landings.

Boeing listed its action accouter avionics baseline capabilities as follows.

“8 x 8 chip displays: air data, primary flight and aeronautics instruments; engine, subsystems, attention and admonishing alerts; systems cachet and abbreviated (heads-down monitoring).

“Multipurpose ascendancy affectation assemblage (MCDU): primary interfaces – FMCS, standby nav (IRS), standby nav radio tuning; accessory interface – accesses CMCS, ACARS, AIDS, weight and balance.

“Advanced FMC software package: advance administration – autothrottle/thrust limit; altitude/speed flight contour action via AFDS MCP; Nav radio affability – automated and remote; common nav abstracts abject capability; software improvements.

“Central aliment computer arrangement (CMCS): connected subsystem chaw with English accent readout; alternate ascendancy of arrangement LRU chaw via MCDU; interfaces flight deck//avionic and associated aeroplane systems.

“Improved celerity reliability: bombastic ascendancy of approach functions for EFIS/EICAS/AFDS MCP; affectation action switching and amateur EIFS/EICAS interface units.

“Digital audio ascendancy and radio advice systems.”

Aside from two eyewitness seats, a windowless aggregation blow compartment, featuring one or two feature bunks, account lights, and beginning air vents, enabled added pilots to attain acknowledged blow periods on fights that could amount up to 18 hours. A comparable, although abundant larger, berth aggregation blow area, installed in the aforetime unutilized rear roof from the endure row of commuter seats to the rear burden bulkhead and replacing the 747-300′s “Portakabin” one that had taken the abode of up to 20 revenue-generating commuter ones, was attainable by a bound door, three-step, and vertical ladder entryway. Accumulation added insulation and beam lighting to simulate day and night cycles, it was configured with capricious numbers of bunks and sleeper seats.

The redesigned interior, which alien an avant-garde widebody look, featured recontoured ceilings and sidewalls; buried lighting; independent beam panels; beyond aerial ancillary and centermost accumulator compartments; outboard, bench clue lockable modular galleys; modular, exhaustion flushable toilets, whose decay was stored in four rear tanks; and a agenda in-flight ball arrangement with seat-back monitors; and 5 capital accouter air conditioning zones with college ventilation.

Inter-deck access, as had been provided on the 747-300, was via a beeline stairway.

Class division, density, capacity, color, fabric, and adornment assorted according to chump specification. A 416 tri-class configuration, for instance, basal 23 aboriginal chic seats at a 61-inch pitch, 80 business chic ones at a 39-inch pitch, and 313 drillmaster chic ones at a 32-inch pitch. A dual-class berth all-around 497 basal 42 aboriginal chic and 455 drillmaster seats. 5 hundred twenty-four could be subdivided into 42 business chic seats at a 42-inch angle and 406 drillmaster ones at a 32-inch pitch, with addition 76 on the continued top deck, provisioned with its own abuse and lavatories.

Maximum capital accouter beside basement in the four cabins abaft the adenoids was ten, with two aisles, and six on the top accouter with a individual aisle. Maximum, exit-limited commuter adaptation was 624.

The 747-400′s lower accouter authority aggregate of 6,035 cubic anxiety was subdivided into 5,190 cubic anxiety of assemblage loading accessory (ULD) amplitude and 845 of aggregate or loose-load space, facilitating the loading of 16 avant-garde and 14 aft LD-3 containers or 5 avant-garde and four aft 96-by-125-inch pallets.

As powered by the CF6-80C2 engine, it had a 390,700-pound operating weight, 144,300-pound burden capability, 535,000-pound zero-fuel weight, 384,824-pound ammunition weight, a best ascent weight that assorted from 800,000 to 870,000 pounds, and a best landing weight that assorted from 574,000 to 630,000 pounds. Range, at a all-embracing cruise acceleration with 412 cartage and reserves, was 7,300 abyssal miles.

Construction of the aboriginal 747-400, registered N401PW, began in mid-1986 in Everett, by which time 49 aircraft had been ordered by Singapore, KLM, Lufthansa, Cathay Pacific, and British Airways. Northwest’s barrage order, for ten, alleged for aircraft configured for 420 passengers. Above accumulation occurred a little over a year later, in September, and the aboriginal roll-out, on January 26, 1988, basal a dual-ceremony, dual-location event, back it apparent the break of the aboriginal 737-400 rollout in Renton. Addition 58 aircraft, by United and Air France, had been intermittently ordered.

The accepted arrangement glitches, forth with the abrupt allotment and powerplant supply delays, adjourned the aboriginal flight of the PW4056-powered aircraft from March to April 29, 1988, followed by aboriginal General Electric and Rolls Royce examples in, respectively, June and August. The GE airframe set a new apple gross weight record, abrogation the aerodrome at 892,450 pounds.

Certification, afterward a four-aircraft flight analysis program, was accomplished on January 9, 1989. Delivered to Northwest 17 canicule afterwards and entering calm account amid Phoenix and Minneapolis on February 9 for aggregation acclimatization purposes, the aboriginal 747-400, powered by PW4056 turbofans, was placed in the Pacific-spanning skies it was advised for, from New York to Tokyo, on June 1.

Other aboriginal deliveries included those to KLM and Lufthansa, on, respectively, May 18 and May 23 with General Electric engines, and to Cathay Pacific on June 8 with Rolls Royce powerplants. On the August 17 supply flight to Qantas, the blazon set a apple ambit almanac from London to Sydney, accoutrement the 9,688 afar in 20 hours, eight minutes.

By May 25, 1990, the 747-400 had admiring 279 close orders.

747-400 Versions:

As had occurred with the basal 747, and decidedly with its -200B series, Boeing offered several variants of the 747-400.

The aboriginal of these was the 747-400 Combi Featuring mixtures of capital accouter commuter and burden loads, the closing in two aft zones, it congenital a 120- by 130-inch aft, port, upward-opening door, adequate floor, and bales loading system, facilitating several amount combinations, including 268 cartage and seven pallets, 290 cartage and dix pallets, or up to 13 pallets. The blazon was aboriginal delivered to KLM on September 1, 1989.

Another alternative was the 747-400D for “domestic.” Advised an avant-garde analogue to the beforehand 747SR for short, high-density Japanese sectors, it bare the six-foot addition extensions and winglets, was powered by lower advance engines, and offered a 600,000-pound best ascent weight, although it was certifiable up to 870,000 pounds.

The aboriginal 747-400D, which was the 844th 747 airframe of all versions, aboriginal flew in March of 1991 and was delivered to Japan Air Lines in October. All-Nippon Airlines, addition operator, configured the aircraft for 27 business and 542 abridgement chic passengers.

The 747-400F, yet addition version, replaced the 747-200F, whose accumulation was discontinued afterwards Air France placed a barrage adjustment for 5 on September 13, 1989. Devoid of commuter windows and facilities, and employing the standard-length top accouter of the 747-100, -200, and -SP, it featured both upward-opening adenoids and ancillary burden doors, a flight deck-reaching foldable ladder, and a two-person aggregation blow area. It could backpack 26 added bags of burden 1,200 afar added than its beforehand -200F counterpart.

Volume totaled 27,467 cubic feet, including 21,347 on the capital deck, 5,600 in the lower accouter holds, and 520 in the bulk. Two ten-foot top pallets could aswell be accommodated on the top deck.

The aboriginal 747-400F, the 968th 747 built, was aboriginal formed out on February 25, 1993, and aboriginal took to the skies three months later, on May 4. The type’s best gross weight was 875,000 pounds. Because Air France had back canceled its order, Cargolux inaugurated the blazon into account instead.

The endure adaptation was the 747-400ER, intended, as its appellation indicates, for “extended range” operations. Initially offered to Qantas as the 747-400IGW “increased gross weight,” it featured one or two 3,064-US gallon abetting tanks installed in the hold, accretion ammunition adaptation to 63,403 gallons and ambit to 7,500 abyssal afar with one catchbasin and 7,700 afar with two.

Powered by 63,300 thrust-pound PW4062 engines, the -400ER had a 535,000-pound zero-fuel weight, a 910,000-pound best ascent weight, and a 652,000-pound landing weight. Architecture ambit with 416 cartage was 7,585 miles.

On September 10, 1993, the 1,000th 747, a -400 alternation for Singapore Airlines, was formed out, authoritative it the fifth Boeing blazon to accomplish this accumulation anniversary afterwards the 707, 727, 737, and (originally McDonnell-Douglas) MD-80. By January 1, 2002, 41 operators had ordered 630 747-400s of all versions. Accumulation ultimately totaled 694.